While Darwin later naturalizes rather than spectacularizes incongruity into his scientific method, in its first iteration in the Journal, it performs vital cultural and aesthetic work: upturning sublimity and delivering detail and present-ness rather than vastness and transcendental awe. Arthur Koestler — Coincidence, Synchronicity, and Parapsychology. Parapsychology, on the other hand, has a poor reputation among the ill-informed of the scientific community, and there are many misconceptions and misunderstandings about parapsychology within the public at large.
Thus it may not be inappropriate to commence by a short chapter on what parapsychology is, and, perhaps more importantly, was parapsychology not is. Brief review of a new biography of Arthur Koestler by Edward Saunders. Against Conformity. Reinventing the Lost Art of Cynicism. In this short book I seek to give cynicism a good name — that is, to give it back the unique intellectual prestige and moral aura it had in the ancient world.
Whereas it now means chiefly moral insensitivity and lack of scruples, for The book is a plea for a more anarchic, decentralized, and idiosyncratic practice of philosophy, one that ignores — deliberately and gleefully — the fads and the -isms of the day in favor a more focused and personal quest for truth and the intellectual joys that comes with it.
Projective Geometry and Schemas Theory. The search for the mathematics underlying Schemas Theory has been going on for some time. A few mathematical candidates have been considered. But it seems that the best candidate has only recently turned up which is generalized Projective But it seems that the best candidate has only recently turned up which is generalized Projective Geometry.
The Mentor. They both deal with each other in their respective memoirs, and remarkably, The primary aim of the course is to introduce students to the key ideas and classical writings of these figures, and to examine their responses to and analysis of the age of extremes.
We will begin our journey with the writings of Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse and Erich Fromm — the founders of the Frankfurt School — and will continue with the analyses of totalitarianism and " political Messianism " offered by Hannah Arendt, Gershom Scholem, Jacob L. Talmon, and Karl Popper, which we will then compare and contrast with the evaluation of liberalism one finds in the writings of Leo Strauss, Isaiah Berlin, and Arthur Koestler.
We shall examine these thinkers' analyses of enlightenment, nationalism, socialism, and totalitarianism, their life stories, and their direct and indirect role in creating a transatlantic political discourse in postwar years.
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We will try to ask ourselves to what extent were their political and philosophical writings designed as a response to the maladies of the twentieth century, and to what extent did their Jewishness notify their writings, if at all. By doing so we shall be able to contextualize historically the fundamental features of Jewish intellectual activity after The meeting was recalled as memorable because of a shared admiration for the "Essay on Death" by Arthur Schopenhauer and Koestler's profile of Thomas The meeting was recalled as memorable because of a shared admiration for the "Essay on Death" by Arthur Schopenhauer and Koestler's profile of Thomas Mann.
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Bernhard H. In: Moving the Social 58 , pp. In the impressionist essay " Ostend " , which became a bestseller in , Volker Weidemann, the Feuilleton editor of the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, describes the summer meeting of a group of emigrants on the shores of In the impressionist essay " Ostend " , which became a bestseller in , Volker Weidemann, the Feuilleton editor of the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, describes the summer meeting of a group of emigrants on the shores of the Belgian canal.
What this account omits is the fact that most of its participants, like Toller, Arthur Koestler and others — with the exception of the fellow traveller Kisch — belonged to a circle of literati and mostly ex-communist intellectual dissidents, who in the coming years were to raise their voices in a last minute attempt to prevent the outbreak of Hitler's war. In , Hegel accepted the renewed offer of the chair of philosophy at the University of Berlin, which had remained vacant since Johann Gottlieb Fichte 's death in Here, Hegel published his Philosophy of Right Hegel devoted himself primarily to delivering his lectures; and his lecture courses on aesthetics, the philosophy of religion, the philosophy of history and the history of philosophy were published posthumously from lecture notes taken by his students.
His fame spread and his lectures attracted students from all over Germany and beyond.
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Hegel was appointed Rector of the University in October , but his term as Rector ended in September Hegel was deeply disturbed by the riots for reform in Berlin in that year. Now in a weak state of health, Hegel seldom went out. As the new semester began in October, Hegel returned to Berlin with the mistaken impression that the epidemic had largely subsided.
By November 14, Hegel was dead. The physicians pronounced the cause of death as cholera, but it is likely he died from a different gastrointestinal disease. Hegel's son Ludwig Fischer had died shortly before while serving with the Dutch army in Batavia and the news of his death never reached his father. Hegel's thinking can be understood as a constructive development within the broad tradition that includes Plato and Immanuel Kant. What all these thinkers share, which distinguishes them from materialists like Epicurus and Thomas Hobbes and from empiricists like David Hume , is that they regard freedom or self-determination both as real and as having important ontological implications for soul or mind or divinity.
This focus on freedom is what generates Plato's notion in the Phaedo , Republic and Timaeus of the soul as having a higher or fuller kind of reality than inanimate objects possess. While Aristotle criticizes Plato's "Forms", he preserves Plato's cornerstones of the ontological implications for self-determination: ethical reasoning, the soul's pinnacle in the hierarchy of nature, the order of the cosmos and an assumption with reasoned arguments for a prime mover.
Kant imports Plato's high esteem of individual sovereignty to his considerations of moral and noumenal freedom as well as to God. All three find common ground on the unique position of humans in the scheme of things, known by the discussed categorical differences from animals and inanimate objects. In his discussion of "Spirit" in his Encyclopedia , Hegel praises Aristotle's On the Soul as "by far the most admirable, perhaps even the sole, work of philosophical value on this topic".
Rather than simply rejecting Kant's dualism of freedom versus nature, Hegel aims to subsume it within "true infinity", the "Concept" or "Notion": Begriff , "Spirit" and "ethical life" in such a way that the Kantian duality is rendered intelligible, rather than remaining a brute "given".
The reason why this subsumption takes place in a series of concepts is that Hegel's method in his Science of Logic and his Encyclopedia is to begin with basic concepts like "Being" and "Nothing" and to develop these through a long sequence of elaborations, including those already mentioned. In this manner, a solution that is reached in principle in the account of "true infinity" in the Science of Logic' s chapter on "Quality" is repeated in new guises at later stages, all the way to "Spirit" and "ethical life" in the third volume of the Encyclopedia.
In this way, Hegel intends to defend the germ of truth in Kantian dualism against reductive or eliminative programs like those of materialism and empiricism. Like Plato, with his dualism of soul versus bodily appetites, Kant pursues the mind's ability to question its felt inclinations or appetites and to come up with a standard of "duty" or, in Plato's case, "good" which transcends bodily restrictiveness. Hegel preserves this essential Platonic and Kantian concern in the form of infinity going beyond the finite a process that Hegel in fact relates to "freedom" and the "ought" ,  : —, the universal going beyond the particular in the Concept and Spirit going beyond Nature.
Hegel renders these dualities intelligible by ultimately his argument in the "Quality" chapter of the "Science of Logic". The finite has to become infinite in order to achieve reality. The idea of the absolute excludes multiplicity so the subjective and objective must achieve synthesis to become whole. This is because as Hegel suggests by his introduction of the concept of "reality",  : what determines itself—rather than depending on its relations to other things for its essential character—is more fully "real" following the Latin etymology of "real", more "thing-like" than what does not.
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Finite things do not determine themselves because as "finite" things their essential character is determined by their boundaries over against other finite things, so in order to become "real" they must go beyond their finitude "finitude is only as a transcending of itself".
The result of this argument is that finite and infinite—and by extension, particular and universal, nature and freedom—do not face one another as two independent realities, but instead the latter in each case is the self-transcending of the former. This evolution was itself the result of God's desire for complete self-awareness.
Modern philosophy, culture and society seemed to Hegel fraught with contradictions and tensions, such as those between the subject and object of knowledge, mind and nature, self and Other , freedom and authority, knowledge and faith, or the Enlightenment and Romanticism.
Hegel's main philosophical project was to take these contradictions and tensions and interpret them as part of a comprehensive, evolving, rational unity that in different contexts he called "the absolute Idea" Science of Logic , sections — or "absolute knowledge" Phenomenology of Spirit , " DD Absolute Knowledge". According to Hegel, the main characteristic of this unity was that it evolved through and manifested itself in contradiction and negation.
Contradiction and negation have a dynamic quality that at every point in each domain of reality — consciousness , history, philosophy, art, nature and society—leads to further development until a rational unity is reached that preserves the contradictions as phases and sub-parts by lifting them up Aufhebung to a higher unity. This whole is mental because it is mind that can comprehend all of these phases and sub-parts as steps in its own process of comprehension.
It is rational because the same, underlying, logical , developmental order underlies every domain of reality and is ultimately the order of self-conscious rational thought, although only in the later stages of development does it come to full self-consciousness. The rational, self-conscious whole is not a thing or being that lies outside of other existing things or minds. Rather, it comes to completion only in the philosophical comprehension of individual existing human minds who through their own understanding bring this developmental process to an understanding of itself.
Hegel's thought is revolutionary to the extent that it is a philosophy of absolute negation—as long as absolute negation is at the center, systematization remains open, and makes it possible for human beings to become subjects. Some [ who? Geist combines the meaning of spirit—as in god, ghost, or mind—with an intentional force. In Hegel's early philosophy of nature draft manuscripts written during his time at the University of Jena , Hegel's notion of "Geist" was tightly bound to the notion of " Aether ", from which Hegel also derived the concepts of space and time , but in his later works after Jena he did not explicitly use his old notion of "Aether" anymore.
Central to Hegel's conception of knowledge and mind and therefore also of reality was the notion of identity in difference —that is, that mind externalizes itself in various forms and objects that stand outside of it or opposed to it; and that through recognizing itself in them, is "with itself" in these external manifestations so that they are at one and the same time mind and other-than-mind. This notion of identity in difference, which is intimately bound up with his conception of contradiction and negativity, is a principal feature differentiating Hegel's thought from that of other philosophers.
Hegel made the distinction between civil society and state in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right. On the left, it became the foundation for Karl Marx 's civil society as an economic base ;  to the right, it became a description for all non-state and the state is the peak of the objective spirit aspects of society, including culture, society and politics.
This liberal distinction between political society and civil society was followed by Alexis de Tocqueville. For example, while it seems to be the case that he felt that a civil society such as the German society in which he lived was an inevitable movement of the dialectic, he made way for the crushing of other types of "lesser" and not fully realized types of civil society as these societies were not fully conscious or aware—as it were—as to the lack of progress in their societies.
Thus, it was perfectly legitimate in the eyes of Hegel for a conqueror such as Napoleon to come along and destroy that which was not fully realized. Hegel's State is the final culmination of the embodiment of freedom or right Rechte in the Elements of the Philosophy of Right. The State subsumes family and civil society and fulfills them. All three together are called "ethical life" Sittlichkeit. The State involves three " moments ".
In a Hegelian State, citizens both know their place and choose their place.
They both know their obligations and choose to fulfill their obligations. An individual's "supreme duty is to be a member of the state" Elements of the Philosophy of Right , section The individual has "substantial freedom in the state". The State is "objective spirit" so "it is only through being a member of the state that the individual himself has objectivity, truth, and ethical life" section Furthermore, every member both loves the State with genuine patriotism, but has transcended mere "team spirit" by reflectively endorsing their citizenship.
Members of a Hegelian State are happy even to sacrifice their lives for the State. According to Hegel, " Heraclitus is the one who first declared the nature of the infinite and first grasped nature as in itself infinite, that is, its essence as process. The origin of philosophy is to be dated from Heraclitus. His is the persistent Idea that is the same in all philosophers up to the present day, as it was the Idea of Plato and Aristotle".
According to Hegel, Heraclitus's "obscurity" comes from his being a true in Hegel's terms "speculative" philosopher who grasped the ultimate philosophical truth and therefore expressed himself in a way that goes beyond the abstract and limited nature of common sense and is difficult to grasp by those who operate within common sense. Hegel asserted that in Heraclitus he had an antecedent for his logic: "[ Hegel cites a number of fragments of Heraclitus in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy.
Heraclitus does not form any abstract nouns from his ordinary use of "to be" and "to become" and in that fragment seems to be opposing any identity A to any other identity B, C and so on, which is not-A. However, Hegel interprets not-A as not existing at all, not nothing at all, which cannot be conceived, but indeterminate or "pure" being without particularity or specificity. This interpretation of Heraclitus cannot be ruled out, but even if present is not the main gist of his thought.