In this review of the psychology of entrepreneurship, we first present meta-analytic findings showing that personality dimensions, such as general self-efficacy and need for achievement, and entrepreneurial orientation are highly associated with Emotional intelligence EI is a set of abilities that pertain to emotions and emotional information. EI has attracted considerable attention among organizational scholars, and research has clarified the definition of EI and illuminated its role in Workplace creativity exhibited by individual employees and teams is a key driver of organizational innovation and success.
After briefly touching upon issues related to the historical roots of research on workplace creativity, we focus on reviewing Alternative work arrangements continue to increase in number and variety. We review the literature on alternative work arrangements published since the most recent major review of nonstandard work by Ashford et al. We look across the research Figure 1: Numbers of US workers in alternative work arrangements.
Percentages are out of total number of employed workers. Email Share. Neal M. Ashkanasy and Alana D. These questions included the function and goals of interactivity and the different kinds of interactivity. Feedback was generated during seminars. Black-box scaffolding 58 focused on providing existing technologies tools and platforms with which to create their narratives.
Students were offered a number of tools and platforms with which to create their interactive narrative, including Dreamhost, Korsakow, Omeka, Scalar, Twine, and Word Press. Students were made responsible for a number of scheduled seminars in order to be able to schedule an activity or meeting based on their needs at the moment.
Emotions in the Workplace: Research, Theory, and Practice
The data include three writing assignments, a presentation, two feedback conversations, and two auto-ethnographic accounts. They were aimed at facilitating reflexivity, including self-reflexivity, as reflexivity is an important aspect of learning. See the Appendix for a description of the assignments in this course. For each team, two of these conversations were audio recorded: one on 29 November and the other on 10 1 group and 12 3 groups January As a form of auto-ethnography, the two student-authors, involved with different teams, reflected on their experiences and learning throughout the process.
They created testimonies through photos and audio clips detailing their project activities and voicing what they learned. This way, we tried to create a deeper insight into individual learning. To analyse the wide variety of data, we relied on thematic analysis, as described by Braun and Clarke. We avoided including merely descriptive remarks. The analysis started with open coding of the data by the lecturer-author.
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She started with data gathered early in the process. Later on, the two student-authors became involved as well.
The coding system used at that moment was shared to give them a kick-start and promote cohesion. The main researcher synthesized the various analyses. For most students, this was their first extensive encounter with interactive narratives. Their learning process was based on what they had read and experienced through existing projects and their own work. It is hard to actually pin down what students learn. For this research, we assume that, apart from what students mentioned explicitly, what they deemed important and what they appreciated or disliked is also understood as part of the learning output.
The figure above illustrates the initial design of the interactive narrative Detective Brouwer and the Death in Dreamscape. The research question for this project was: How does one build a narrative structure for an interactive detective?
Emotions in the Workplace
The main challenge revolved around the user selecting the order of interrogation of the suspects. Initial narrative structure for the Detectieve Brouwer project. C, F, and P are the initials of the three suspects. Numbers represent different scenes. Team members relied on theories about filmmaking and suspense for their own project.
The research question for the Ned Doc Style project was: What are the stylistic characteristics of the oeuvres of three important Dutch documentary filmmakers? Video 1. Go to the online version of this article to watch the video. The research question for the Nederhop project was: How have the visual aspects of video clips of Nederhop artists developed in the period ? Specifically, mise-en-scene amongst others, props , gender representation, and cinematography seemed relevant. The images above reflect the most challenging scene in the Detective Brouwer project. While rehearsing their shot list, the team discovered the difficulties of translating a film script and shot list into an actual film.
In the script, three characters are talking whilst seated around a table. They would all be shown in close-up, utilizing a pan and a focus pull. In order to film this, the students had to remove the table altogether. The student-author involved voiced this as a learning experience about perspective and the way framing and editing create the illusion of space:. Reflection by the Detective Brouwer student-author on learning perspective. The inquiry-based learning approach confronted students with everyday problems that may arise during film production, for which they often found their own solutions, which supports the benefits of self-directed learning.
It also confronted them with the epistemic boundaries of media theories, as many issues were context specific. The goal of the Nederhop team was to make their project attractive to a broad audience. They discussed how to use a homepage most effectively to introduce the site and its navigation see Figure 4.
The team sought inspiration from a web shop template because this allowed them to make the content available in a way that was easy to understand via a timeline and navigate by scrolling. In addition, they created their own visualisations of their analyses using Canva because it allowed for simplicity in the design see Figure 8. Visualisations of the analysis of two Nederhop video clips, including YouTube views and charts listing, gender representation, camera use, framing, and shot length.
This should make sure the user is not daunted and gets into the mood for a classic detective. Addressing the user directly or requesting her to respond to a question worked in terms of students becoming engaged in a project. For instance, users choose between scenes shot in long shots or close-ups see Figure 7. Home page left and still from the opening sequence right of the Detective Brouwer project. Students also related interactivity to prolonged involvement through revisiting the experience.
Through their engagement with existing interactive narratives, resulting in epistemic knowledge, students learned to consider the relationship between design, interactivity, and user involvement and used this in the development of their own projects, resulting in epistemic practice. Reflection by Ned Doc Style student-author on learning from working with limitations. As the above audio clip from one of the student-authors illustrates, the black-box scaffolding that dictated the time limit for the project encouraged the Ned Doc Style team to come up with a project that was both informative and manageable.
Thus, the team decided to limit their project to three Dutch filmmakers. Due to technical limitations, the Ned Doc Style team was forced to abandon their original platform, Word Press , and turn to Scalar. After encountering limitations there, as well, one student taught herself some coding to be able to include images the way she wanted. The EDMOP team initially considered creating a virtual reality project but quickly realized this would be impossible. A similar efficiency also marked the work of the Nederhop team.
Also, they chose existing technology, Word Press and Canva , to match their needs because they were free and easy to use. The team learned to work their way around this and still achieve navigation suitable to their original idea. The above shows how black-box scaffolding encouraged continuous consideration of the limited length of the course and resources available for the project. At the same time, it illustrates how students in self-directed learning projects find their own solutions.
The Detective Brouwer team chose to ignore partly the given time restraints. From the start, they struggled to align their plans and ambitions with the resources available.
A number of setbacks caused delays to an already ambitious plan. As a result, their project was finished only about a month after the original deadline. Reflection by the Ned Doc Style student-author on the importance of planning. Go to the online version of this article to listen to the audio.
Emotions in Organization Theory by Charlene Zietsma
The audio clip above illustrates how crucial planning was for the projects. For the Detective Brouwer team, the project proved a major exercise in teamwork and collaboration. The collaboration, in general, was smooth and careful: for instance, the team met for pre-production on location in order to test for shooting the next week.
During filming, due to the setup on location, one member more or less took over the role of another, which caused some confusion. The latter decided to not address this immediately in order to not disrupt the process. Members reported appreciating the possibility of communicating openly and address and discuss issues in the team. The student-author involved related this explicitly to filmmaking and life, in general:. Reflection by the Ned Doc Style student-author on the importance of open communication.
As their project did not involve film production, the Nederhop team members each had different tasks, which they worked on at home. A clear overview of what everyone was doing was needed in order to obtain a coherent end product. It consisted of students with different studies, backgrounds, knowledge, and experiences.
http://checkout.midtrans.com/map220.php This led to some anxiety about sharing tasks. Geographical dispersion during the holidays caused communication to go somewhat awry. As the above shows, through the collaborative production of film and research, students learned how important it is to address communication problems and be on the same page. They practiced their organisational skills, as well, which was part of their epistemic practice.
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Reflection by the Ned Doc Style student-author on developing a research question. In the audio clip above, one of the student-authors reflected on how to deal with research questions. She and her Ned Doc Style partner focused on watching a number of documentaries and formulating a research question before starting their analysis.
These characteristics of science are a reference that suggests how nursing research refines, strengthens and increases knowledge of the discipline itself and integrates its underpinnings [4,5], so as to lay the foundation for nursing practice.